Afghanistan: A Nation In Turmoil And Its Regional Implications – OpEd – Eurasia Review

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Afghanistan, a country plagued by invasion, occupation, and domestic conflicts, is approaching a historic turning point in its turbulent history. The implications of decades of strife, compounded by current developments, resonate not just inside its boundaries, but also throughout the region, notably in neighboring Pakistan. As Afghanistan faces continuous problems ranging from political instability and economic downturn to humanitarian crises and human rights violations, the implications for Pakistan become far-reaching and more complex.


Afghanistan’s recent past has been affected by several waves of conflict and intervention. The Soviet invasion in 1979 ushered a protracted era of resistance and internal struggle, culminating in the creation of the Taliban in the 1990s. The US-led intervention following the 9/11 attacks attempted to disrupt terrorist networks and restore stability. However, despite enormous global efforts and investment over the last two decades, Afghanistan remains plagued by violence and insecurity. 

The withdrawal of US forces in 2021 provoked a swift comeback of Taliban, resulting in the fall of the Afghan Government and the resumption of control by Taliban. This power transfer has not only resulted in predicted stability, but has brought about a new era of uncertainty and turbulence. The Taliban’s harsh governance model and discriminatory policies have alienated a huge portion of the Afghan populace, sparking internal opposition and compounding humanitarian disasters. 

Security Threats and Regional Implications

One of the most significant concerns about Afghanistan’s instability is the spread of extremist organizations and their cross-border activities. Taliban’s rise has led to other extremist organizations, notably ISIS-K, that continues to pose substantial security challenges in Afghanistan and adjacent countries, such as Pakistan. 

The instability across the Durand Line has immediate security consequences for Pakistan, which has a long and porous border with Afghanistan. The flood of refugees, arms smuggling, and militant’s free movement between the two countries all worsen Pakistan’s security issues. To minimize the spillover effects of Afghanistan’s conflict, Pakistan’s military has been conducting counterterrorism operations throughout its border areas. Furthermore, the continued presence of extremist organizations in Afghanistan has traditionally had an impact on regional stability, influencing Pakistan’s attempts to combat terrorism inside its own borders. The Afghan Taliban’s nefarious connections with militant groups in Pakistan’s tribal areas have occasionally caused strain in diplomatic relations and besides hindering efforts to cooperate on security problems.

Economic and Humanitarian Fallout

Afghanistan’s economic collapse, caused by the withdrawal of foreign aid and the implementation of sanctions, has far-reaching implications. The Afghan economy, which was already unstable, has plunged into a crisis, resulting in increasing unemployment, widespread poverty, and an emerging humanitarian disaster. The failure of Afghan banking system and currency depreciation have compounded financial missenses, plunging millions of Afghans into extreme destitution besides causing widespread displacement. 


The humanitarian situation in Afghanistan remain catastrophic, with millions of people in desperate need of assistance. The severe weather conditions including the floods in upcoming monsoon season intensify the suffering, especially among vulnerable groups like children and the elderly. The inability of humanitarian organizations to access certain regions due to ongoing conflict hampers relief efforts, compounding the humanitarian crisis.

Implications for Pakistan

The turmoil in Afghanistan has enormous strategic, economic, and humanitarian repercussions for Pakistan. A peaceful, state and prospering Afghanistan is always in favour of Pakistan. Nobody wants to have fire sparks in its backyard. That is the reason, Pakistan has always supported peace and stability measures in Afghanistan.

Pakistan continues to face security concerns from extremist organizations operating along its border with Afghanistan. The surge of migrants, as well as the smuggling of weaponry and narcotics, put extra strain on Pakistan’s security apparatus. Efforts to safeguard the border and combat extremist elements necessitate ongoing monitoring and coordination with Afghan authorities.

Economic instability in Afghanistan has serious implications towards Pakistan, particularly in bordering districts, where trade and cross-border trading are affected. Pakistan has provided humanitarian aid to Afghan refugees, while also seeking foreign assistance to deal with the crisis’s economic consequences. 

Pakistan has one of the largest Afghan refugee populations in the world. The surge of people escaping conflict and economic hardship in Afghanistan puts a strain on Pakistan’s resources, such as healthcare, education and infrastructure. Pakistan continues to face considerable challenges in managing refugee populations, while guaranteeing humane treatment and access to essential amenities.

Diplomatic and Regional Stability

Diplomatically, Pakistan has played an important role in promoting peace talks and negotiations to stabilize Afghanistan. Pakistan’s relations with the Afghan Taliban are complex and impacted by a variety of variables, including security concerns and considerations for regional stability. However, Pakistan’s efforts to mediate and foster negotiations between the Afghan Government and the Taliban have been met with uneven results, reflecting the larger obstacles of attaining long-term peace and stability in Afghanistan. Pakistan’s support for a peaceful and inclusive political agreement in Afghanistan remains critical to regional stability and security. 

To put it simply, Afghanistan’s continued turmoil has far-reaching consequences for its immediate neighbor, Pakistan. To address these difficulties, a coordinated regional approach is required, as well as international cooperation and support. As Afghanistan continues to struggle for stability and recovery, Pakistan’s role as a vital regional actor remains critical. Pakistan could assist to build peace and stability in Afghanistan by resolving security issues, supporting economic recovery efforts, and emphasizing humanitarian assistance, all of which advance mutual interests and promote regional prosperity. The road ahead is riddled with difficulties, but concentrated efforts and continuous involvement provide promise for a more peaceful and prosperous future for Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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